Bordeaux is a very old wine region dating back to at least 300 AD and probably much earlier. This wine region was influenced by world politics and has changed dramatically throughout history. Many trade wars had their foundations in Bordeaux wines. In England, red Bordeaux wines are refered to as Claret.
Modern red Bordeaux wines are primarily made with Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, Malbec, and Carmenère. Wine making procedures typically include fairly high temperature fermentations (86˚F/30˚C), frequent pumping over, extended skin contact, natural yeast fermentation, malo-lacitc fermentation in barrels, and extended barrel aging before bottling. These wines are made to be laid down for a considerable amount of time. Bordeaux benefits from centuries of winemaking with repeated application of lees on the vineyard which produces a very reliable spontaneous natural fermentation. For areas with a shorter history of winemaking, inoculation of a pure culture is recommended.